el tajin history

Präkolumbische Stadt Teotihuacán (1987) | Prähistorische Höhlen von Yagul und Mitla im Tal von Oaxaca (2010) | Auch in anderen präkolumbischen Städten gab es rituelle Ballspielplätze im Bereich der Tempelanlagen, etwa in Tikal (Guatemala). Die Blütezeit war von 700 n. Chr. Dann begeben sich die vier Winde auf die Spitze des Stamms. Müller … [50], While the Blue Temple was a fairly early construction, the pyramid next to it, Building 23 was built very late in Tajin's history. The rest of the procession consists of warriors holding captives by their hair. Both are small temple-like platforms. In the center are two intertwined serpents which seem to form the shape of a tlaxmalactl or ball game marker. When the city fell, most of the sculptures in this area were smashed or defaced with some being reused as building stone. One of the panels at the Pyramid of the Niches shows a ceremony being held at a cacao tree. The merchant deity found here has features more in common with this kind of deity in the central highlands of Mexico than of Tajín. El Tajin was founded following the abandonment of the city of Teotihuacan. The court has a general east-west alignment and is 198 feet (60 m) long and 34.5 feet (10.5 m) wide. [10], The Cumbre Tajín has been criticized for its emphasis on modern shows rather than on cultural events. In addition, the Danza de los Voladores is enacted at the entrance to the site and is considered a requirement for visitors. [32], The site museum is divided into two parts: an enclosed building and a roofed area covering large stone sculpture fragments. Average temperature for the year is 35 °C with hurricanes possible from June to October. Caves, especially those with springs, have been considered sacred in much of Mexico with offerings of flowers and candles being traditional. The web's source of information for Ancient History: definitions, articles, timelines, maps, books, and illustrations. One of the most mysterious is the ancient city of El Tajín in the state of Veracruz, Mexico. He claimed the natives had kept the place secret. Buried under all of this is a smaller stricter with taluds but no niches. Originally the structure was painted a dark red with the niches in black intended to deepen the shadows of the recessed niches. Most of the buildings are at the southern end, where the land is relatively flat and the two streams converge. The third story begins with a wall of niches and no visible stairs. One of the most interesting objects on display is an altar from Building 4. Cabañas-Hospiz in Guadalajara (1997) | The panels inside were painted with murals, of which only fragments survive. [41] Tajin Chico is so named because it was initially thought to be a separate but related site. [4] This architecture includes the use of decorative niches and cement in forms unknown in the rest of Mesoamerica. There have been a number of research projects as well as reconstruction projects and projects to make more of the site accessible to visitors. [7] The Totonacs established the nearby settlement of Papantla after the fall of El Tajín. De origen totonaca, esta cultura de la cual aún no se sabe su origen específico, puesto que algunos investigadores proponen que fue formada por grupos procedentes de … These buildings are situated on a platform-terrace with was formed on natural contours and filled in spaces. It became the most important centre in north-east Mesoamerica after the fall of the Teotihuacan Empire. [36], The pyramid has seven stories. Die Stadt wurde im 1. and during this time numerous The other structure on this platform is called the Annex or the Building of the Tunnels, as it is connected to the Building of the Columns by a passageway. The other structure is the Great Ballcourt, the largest court at El Tajin. Share our journey! [47] This building is named for the columns that adorned the east facade of the structure. The sides of the enclosure are formed by a slender platform with sloping sides and free standing niches, resembling the Pyramid of the Niches. It is unknown if the similarity between this building and the Pyramid of the Niches indicates a relationship between the two. hatte sind heute unbekannt. Bei diesem Spiel mussten die Mannschaften (die Anzahl der Spieler ist nicht bekannt; es gibt allerdings Abbildungen, die insgesamt vier Personen zeigen) den Ball mit der Hüfte in einen hochgelegenen Ring befördern. The sacrificed player appears here, whole and with a pot under his arm. [1] From the time the city fell, in 1230, to 1785, no European seems to have known of its existence, until a government inspector chanced upon the Pyramid of the Niches. There is an inner courtyard and ornately decorated, with stepped frets, other symbols in stone and cement which were painted. Jahrhundert besuchten Guillermo Dupaix, Alexander von Humboldt (1811) und Carl Nebel El Tajín. August 2020 um 14:45 Uhr bearbeitet. There are also fears that large numbers of visitors to the site for events such as concerts by names such as Alejandra Guzmán damage the site. El Tajin was founded following the abandonment of the city of Teotihuacan. Bekannt ist El Tajín auch durch sein kulturelles Ballspiel, das möglicherweise mit Menschenopferungen endete. Between the two sets of staircases on the first level on the east side is a tall column-line sculpture. Biosphärenreservat El Pinacate y Gran Desierto de Altar (2013) | Felszeichnungen in der Sierra de San Francisco (1993) | Festungsstadt San Miguel de Allende und Wallfahrtskirche Jesús de Nazareno in Atotonilco (2008) | El Tajín was left to the jungle and remained covered and silent for over 500 years. A figure dressed as an eagle dances in front while a skeletal deity flies above and the death deity rises from liquid. Heute existieren noch 10 Ballspielplätze. [28] The poured cement was used in the only building with two floors at the site, Building B, as a roof and as a separator between the ground and upper floor. No sculpture is known to have come from this building and nothing of the temple at the top remains. Haus und Studio von Luís Barragán (2004) | It covers 17 hectares with a capacity of 40,000 people. However, the one on the northeast side has been completely destroyed due to centuries-old trail that was used when this area was still jungle. His drawings and descriptions were published in a book named Voyage pittoresque et archéologique published in Paris in 1836. At the top of the stairway were probably two large three-dimensional stelae. Diese Seite wurde zuletzt am 26. Su auge fue de principios del siglo IX hasta principios del siglo XIII. It is a modern facility with the aim of being a center of Veracruz indigenous identity. Um 1200 wurde die Stätte wieder verlassen. The entrance to the building from the plaza was through a divided stairway, leading to a single room 32 by 24 feet (9.8 by 7.3 m) in size. One holds a large knife in his left hand and gestures with his right. El Tajín is a pre-Columbian archeological site in southern Mexico and is one of the largest and most important cities of the Classic era of Mesoamerica. [51], Just south of Buildings 3 and 23 is Building 15, which is only partially excavated. However, there are no records by any Europeans about the place prior to the late 18th century. [12], El Tajín prospered until the early years of the 13th century, when it was destroyed by fire, presumably started by an invading force believed to be the Chichimecs. [21] While the city had been completely covered by jungle from its demise until the 19th century, it is unlikely that knowledge of the place was completely lost to the native peoples. This temple was obviously of great symbolic importance to the people of El Tajin: it once contained exactly 365 niches, marking its connection to the solar year. The snakes represent the ball game marker called the tlaxmalacatle in Aztec times. This is part of an initial activity before the game itself starts. Biosphärenreservat Sian Ka'an (1987) | He eventually cleared 77 acres (310,000 m2), uncovering more buildings and proposed that it be called “The Archeological City of El Tajín.” Starting from 1938, excavation and reconstruction work was sponsored by INAH and headed by Jose Garcia Payon,[15] uncovering platforms, ballcourts and part of Tajín Chico with its palaces. [44], Building A has two levels, stepped frets and niches and is reminiscent of structures found in the Yucatán. Its architecture, which is unique in Mesoamerica, is … Die Erbauer der weitläufigen Anlage, die ihre Blütezeit zwischen 300 und 1100 n. Chr. [23][24], The first archeologists reached the site in the early 20th century and included Teobert Maler, Edward Seler, Francisco del Paso y Troncoso and Herbert and Ellen Spinden. It controlled the flow of commodities, both exports such as vanilla and imports from other locations in what is now Mexico and Central America. [1] The religion was based on the movements of the planets, the stars and the Sun and Moon,[14] with the Mesoamerican ballgame and pulque having extremely important parts. Visit El Tajin: History El Tajin is your one stop shop for everything that Mesoamerican Veracruz has to offer… excellent ruins, voladores & the Pueblo Magico base town of Papantla. Unlike the rest of the city, these four buildings are uniform in height and nearly symmetrical. Nachdem die vier Winde die Erde erreicht haben, begibt sich die Sonne am Stamm oder über eines der Seile auf die Erde nieder. Klöster an den Hängen des Popocatépetl (1994) | The closest settlement of any real size is Papantla. [33], This is called the Arroyo Group because two streams surround it on three sides. Denkmalensemble von Querétaro (1996) | There is a popular belief that each niche contained an idol or effigy but archeological work here has ruled this out. [11][25] From 1984 to 1994, Jürgen K. Brüggemann built on the work of García Payón, uncovering 35 more buildings. This complex was one of the last to be built and it also shows evidence if fire and other damage from the fall of the city. Under the fourth panel, an older panel was found. Date/Time Thumbnail Dimensions User Comment; current: 17:29, 18 June 2006: 2,560 × 1,920 (2.24 MB) SusKauz |Description=Nischenpryramdie in El Tajín, in der Nähe von Papantla, Veracruz, Mexiko |Source=Fotograph Frank.C. There are also facilities for workshops, exhibitions, alternative therapies, seminars and ceremonies. Much of this section was created by using massive amounts of landfill. [52], Building 5 is considered to be the stateliest of the El Tajin site. It is now known that it belonged to the center of the city. Er setzt sich gen Osten und beginnt, mit einer kleinen Trommel und einer Flöte zu spielen, während die vier Winde sich drehend das Seil um den Unterleib wickeln. The interior of the pyramid is rocks and earth. It hosts fairs, conventions and other events, including part of the annual Cumbre Tajín cultural festival which is held in March. [43], Building B is a two-story structure that was used as a residence and classified as a palace. Related to this is their belief that twelve old thunderstorm deities, known as Tajín, still inhabit the ruins. Each year since 1992, the number of visitors to the site increases which now stands at 653,000 annually. 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