how to reduce cyclomatic complexity

This solution is quite satisfactory to the problem at hand. This will also lower cyclomatic complexity, but main reason why I recommend it is that with this block, there is no way for caller code to distinguish legally parsed 0 from number format exception. Change ). Cyclomatic complexity is a software metric used to measure the complexity of a program. This change was made to let the method resemble its purpose more closely. Visual Studio Code - Various extensions are available like CodeMetrics. Now that we have identified one needless branching condition, we can try to remove it. This course begins with examination of a realistic application, which is poorly factored and doesn't incorporate design patterns. A low cyclomatic complexity generally indicates a method that is easy to understand, test, and maintain. (We’ll see what you can do to reduce complexity later in the article.) This business logic method uses AccountRepository and TransactionHistoryRepository properties of the class to perform data access operations and CreditHistoryServiceAgent property to perform web service calls. Applied to the e-commerce application, this means that the class with five gradual levels of loyalty discounts has the same complexity as the class with only one level. Lambdas which produce objects also change themselves! Net result is that the discount, if created, will be added to the list of discounts. In case of the discount, we have the same situation. Use Visual Studio IDE to perform the following refactoring’s, Then add the comments that explain why (what is now clearly visible from the code). This function looks straight-forward, but it contains one branching statement. This is because lower cyclomatic complexity results in higher cohesion and fewer anticipated defects within modules [SteinEtAl2005]. In this article, I have provided a way to do that. Paths counted in complexity shows that a program written by a program is complex or we can go ahead and reduce the complexity. How is Cyclomatic Complexity Calculated . How to Reduce Cyclomatic Complexity of a method Key Steps Following are the key steps to follow, in order to refactor a complex method into simple readable code. Ease of testing. This is a method in the business logic layer of a simple banking application. But it can turn out to be of higher value in some more complicated cases. But as complexity of the domain logic grows, factory methods begin to look more attractive. ( Log Out /  8 Comments. Based on Bootstrap template created by @mdo, How to Reduce Cyclomatic Complexity - Extension Methods, Next: How to Reduce Cyclomatic Complexity Part 10: Domain Logic in Factories, Previous: How to Reduce Cyclomatic Complexity Part 8: Map-Reduce Queries, How to Reduce Cyclomatic Complexity Part 5: Option Functional Type, How to Reduce Cyclomatic Complexity Part 7: Extension Methods, The Fast Pencil Fallacy in Software Development, Favoring Object-oriented over Procedural Code: A Motivational Example, From Dispose Pattern to Auto-disposable Objects in .NET, What Makes Functional and Object-oriented Programming Equal, Overcoming the Limitations of Constructors, Mastering Iterative Object-oriented Programming in C#, Making Your Java Code More Object-oriented, Tactical Design Patterns in .NET: Creating Objects, Tactical Design Patterns in .NET: Control Flow, Tactical Design Patterns in .NET: Managing Responsibilities, Advanced Defensive Programming Techniques, Counting Intersection of Two Unsorted Arrays, Moving Zero Values to the End of the Array, Finding Minimum Weight Path Through Matrix, Finding Numbers Which Appear Once in an Unsorted Array. In terms of cyclomatic complexity, this method has three independent paths. As demonstration after demonstration will unfold, we will refactor this entire application, fitting many design patterns into place almost without effort. Discount must be assigned only once. Do not use string.Concat to concatenate strings, use ‘+’ symbol instead. Essentially, with cyclomatic complexity, higher numbers are “bad” and lower numbers are “good”. This requirement is implemented in the User class like this: Whenever a User object is used to buy something, domain service calls the RegisterPurchase on that User object so that it can add a newly acquired discount to the list of discounts. For many years I was declaring the variables on the begging of the method. It is not required because data that we use in the loop, such as the separator, can be used to piggyback control information, such as the flag used to branch execution. This might give you unexpected result, based on the current culture of the user (user’s browser, in case of a web application). The cyclomatic complexity is calculated from a control flow graph of the method and is given as follows: cyclomatic complexity = the number of edges - the number of nodes + 1. Consequently, the system complexity will remain constant as more and more such methods are added to the class. By the end of the course, you will know how code refactoring and design patterns can operate together, and help each other create great design. Instead of branching the code to decide which object to create at the given situation, we use factory methods. How would it go if we used a function to calculate a separator? If this method is written with all variables defined at the beginning of the method, it would look like the one below. Cyclomatic complexity metrics are an important indicator of your source code’s readability, maintainability, and portability. There are a number of programming paradigms that can help you reduce the complexity of your code. One testing strategy, called basis path testing by McCabe who first proposed it, is to test each linearly independent path through the program; in this case, the number of test cases will equal the cyclomatic complexity of the program. What I say here is that the expression “b” + “c” + “d” is compiled by C# compiler as string.Concat(“b”,”c”,”d”). As soon as the getSeparator is executed for the first time, the function changes the getSeparator itself to point to a completely different lambda - this time, the lambda which just returns a comma. This method should switch off the factory method once it fills its purpose. We could just have an enumeration at hand: In this case there is no "last" element. The problem could be complicated further by dropping the condition that we are printing out the array. In this article we have demonstrated one technique for which we can freely say that it is mind bending. That is how we can reduce cyclomatic complexity of our code. One of the metrics it provides is McCabe's Cyclomatic Complexity. This metric is useful because of properties of Cyclomatic complexity (M) - M can be number of test cases to achieve branch coverage (Upper Bound) M can be number of paths through the graphs. This article describes refactoring a switch statement in order to reduce Cyclomatic complexity. As you can guess, there are a number of tools to assist with cyclomatic complexity while writing code. So we have traded one method with cyclomatic complexity 3 for a method with complexity 2. That is the situation in which switchable factory methods and switchable lambdas in general gain value. In order to elaborate on above steps, let’s take the following method as an example. It’s a great explanation Ruwan. Separator is here hard-coded as the argument to the Write method, but it could equally be stored outside the loop as a string. Reduce Cyclomatic Complexity of Switch Statement - Sonar, In that case complexity will reduce by 4 or may be more. Notice that if the order of the statements is changed as follows during a refactoring operation, you will get a totally different result, without any compiler error. Thanks Ruwan for this I learned a lot from this. But, these are not ordinary factory methods. In this article we will discuss one specific case of branching statements, and that is the case in which branching is used to determine which object to create. ( Log Out /  Consumers can then simply invoke members on the Null Object the same way as they did on the previously non-null object. If you wish to learn more, please watch my latest video courses. (12). This method implements the following algorithm. We can also get 100% code coverage with 1 unit test. user3431624. Background. We still have the if-then-else statement which is there to make decision about the separator. Notice that cyclomatic complexity of this method is 2. ). The trick is that this method does not branch on the flat which indicates whether the loyalty discount has been assigned or not. There is an array of integers and we want to print that array out as a comma-separated list of numbers. Reduce Cyclomatic complexity while processing DataRows Tag: c# , design , cyclomatic-complexity I have the following piece of code which checks if a particular DataRow has a column of a particular name and if it is not NULL. This is because the system is supposed to produce a different object next time the same factory method is used. Also I think it will be nice to move switch to separate method since it looks like something witch will be used in many different places. In some cases, it is really not possible at first site. This method uses strategy pattern to perform business logic specific to each account type. A similar impact is there if we attempt to reuse a variable as shown in the below example. I'd define a mapping of Strings to the functions they correspond with. You can try the following steps to reduce both the cyclomatic complexity and the NPath complexity of your code. Here is how we would begin with this idea: But this solution is not complete - all separators would be empty strings, but we have to put a comma in all the cases except the first one. Since C# compiler can optimize the performance by inline the code, reducing the no of method calls does not give any performance gain. Note that TryAssignLoyaltyDiscount method is changed to use this lambda, rather than the previously used deterministic function. That string is the separator, but it also acts as the flag. Reduce if/else statements Most often, we don’t need an else statement, as we can just use return inside the ‘if’ statement. March 13, 2012 This change in the system state is setting the hasReceivedLoyaltyDiscount flag to True. Add private methods with meaningful names… We could also suspect that it is printing an empty string. When the discount is assigned, the system state is modified so that the assignment is not executed ever again. “Indeed, the ratio of time spent reading versus … The third path is executed when both conditions are met and if block is executed. This function looks straight-forward, but it contains one branching stateme… Null Object design pattern is helpful in situations when there is a legitimate object which can stand in place of the null reference. Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. Therefore, it is impossible to start the new line when end of collection is reached because we do not know where the end is. Then branch clears the isFirst flag and prints nothing. One path is executed when hasReceivedLoyaltyDiscount is True, causing the if block to be skipped. Cyclomatic complexity for this method is 19 and it’s too complex. The cyclomatic complexity also affects other software metrics, like code maintainability index. Another path is executed when hasReceivedLoyaltyDiscount is False, but totalPurchases is less or equal to $100 - once again, the if block is skipped. Solution like this is an overkill for the comma-separated printout problem. In this series of articles we have been discussing methods that can be applied to reduce cyclomatic complexity of code. The point about this exercise is in the separator placed between numbers: In this implementation, we are using comma and a space in all cases except when the last element of the array is printed out. Negative branch is then there to just print the separator. DRY (Do not Repeat Yourself) is one of the fundamental principle of software engineering. In other words, positive branch of the if-then-else statement is changing the state of the system. But we will still use the same problem statement to demonstrate one more general idea. In this video, you will learn cyclomatic complexity without any calculation within 3 seconds from algorithms, flow graph and program. Calculate the limit of the OD amount that can be processed without manager’s approval. This method creates the discount if condition is met. When your code is in that range, its complexity becomes noticeable. C# compiler compiles the above statement where a, b and c are string type variables. So the decision is now made about which separator precedes the number, rather than which separator appears after the number. Inside the loop, we are oblivious of the collection's length. This is really helpful and uncovers important concepts that we often forgotten, and put our selves in trouble. And right there comes the mind bending moment. Whenever I lint a piece of code I'm working on I get the This function's cyclomatic complexity is too high i.e. This can significantly reduce the number of lines and improve readability of your code. That is exactly the same thing that happened to the isFirst flag before. Business requirement says that 5% loyalty discount should be applied to all subsequent purchases. ( Log Out /  This method also initiates a workflow if an approval is needed. About ruwandotnetI am a fan of Microsoft .Net related technologies. Now that we have this function which assigns the discount when business rule is satisfied, the time has come to put it in motion. Cyclomatic complexity calculation is one of the standard approaches to calculate the source code complexity and determine the risk that the source code possesses for any future modification and maintenance. Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. I work for Virtusa Corp as a Software Architect. However we have to ensure that methods are named property. These metric, measures independent paths through program source code. Since “b”+”c”+”d” is more readable than string.Concat(“b”,”c”,”d”), + symbol is prefered over string.Concat. To fix the issue, we will have to change the factory function for the subsequent passes: This time, only the first call to the getSeparator method will return an empty string. This can be static. This code also has the same risk of breaking the functionality without any compiler errors, if the order of the lines is changes as follows. JetBrains ReSharper ; CodeRush One of the primary causes of rising complexity are branching statements - if-then-else and switch statements. you mean to say, That is an example of needless increasing of the code complexity, which in turn reduces code readability and makes it harder to understand what the method is doing. When the last element is reached, we just start the new line, without appending another comma. Zoran Horvat is the Principal Consultant at Coding Helmet, speaker and author of 100+ articles, and independent trainer on .NET technology stack. Consider the code below. Therefore, this article discusses, through the application of design patterns, refactoring code with higher cyclomatic complexity into a structure where constituents have lower individual cyclomatic complexity. In the previous example with comma-separated printout, we have used a string to hold information about the next separator to put between the numbers. Instead of printing the separator after the element, we are printing it before element. Else branch prints comma and a space. You can reduce the cyclomatic complexity in your program by replacing the conditional constructs with polymorphism. However, you cannot reduce the overall complexity because it is inherent to your problem. Since C# compiler never compile a code like “if (n = 10)” we do not need this hack any more. 1. Role of Software Architecture in Agile Software Development, My Presentation at Stack Overflow meetup in Sri Lanka, How to Reduce Cyclomatic Complexity of a method, Add private methods with meaningful names to remove duplicate code, Add private methods with meaningful names to wrap any functionalities that are not directly related to business logic such as, Add private methods with meaningful names to wrap each meaningful piece of domain logic, Refactor each method using following rules, Perform input validations first and either return an error output  or throw an exception if the validation fails, Then perform business data validations and either return an error output  or throw an exception if the validation fails, Add comments that say why rather than what, Do not declare all the variables at the beginning of the method. https://www.perforce.com/blog/qac/what-cyclomatic-complexity So, the more of those commands, the more complex and high your Cyclomatic Complexity will be. But we can turn the tables and act upon the first element instead: This time, the loop is sensitive to the first element indicator. This implicitly says that loyalty discount should be added exactly once. Ordinal comparison will perform, Do not use string.Concat to concatenate strings, use ‘+’ symbol instead. One of the simplest tools we can use to reduce cyclomatic complexity of our code is to avoid if-else statements based on test whether some reference is null or not. You can reduce cyclomatic complexity for each method to 1. This score helps you determine how complex your code is. And, not to forget, the model you develop in this way will be correct and free of bugs. Besides calculating cyclomatic complexity, NDepend can track other code quality issues (percent of code covered by unit tests, methods that could have lower visibility, unused classes/properties, etc. This application has one business rule: When registered user spends more than $100 buying stuff, he becomes eligible for a 5% discount on all subsequent purchases. Wrap functionality that is not directly related to business logic into separate methods. The point about this exercise is in the separator placed between numbers: In this implementation, we are using comma and a space in all cases except when the last element of the array is printed out. That is one situation in which branching can be justified. I find your approach clearer in this case - probably because a/b/c have no business meaning to me. An obvious benefit from applying the Null Object pattern is that null reference tests and correspo… Many developers would have scratched their heads in order to keep their Cyclomatic complexity under 10. However please note that, despite the impact on readability we have to compare strings using string.Equals method as shown below, This is due to the fact that .Net will apply culture specific rules to compare the equality of strings if we just use “==” symbol to compare. In all the previous methods, we resolved Cyclomatic Complexity by taking a method with 8 branches, and reducing that 1 method to 0 branches. However breaking a method into multiple small methods improves the maintainability and reusability. Suppose a program has a cyclomatic complexity of 5.that means there are 5 different independent paths through the method. Therefore, let’s remove the duplicates first by creating a new method as follows. Many tools are available for determining the complexity of the application. It is nearly impossible to maintain and develop this application further, due to its poor structure and design. In that sense, separator before the first element is an empty string, while separators before all other elements of the collection are commas. But I'm a bit confused on how I could rewrite it in such way so it works. In this series of articles we were refactoring one simple e-commerce application. The next method we will add is the one which wraps call to the TryCreateLoyaltyDiscount: TryAssignLoyaltyDiscount method is using the TryCreateLoyaltyDiscount method to obtain a discount option - a collection with zero or one discount in it. Static code analysis tools are typically used to calculate cyclomatic complexity and other code complexity metrics. This is the complete implementation which assigns 5% loyalty discount once the user has spent $100 buying: Drawback of this technique is that it is a bit cryptic and not that easy to figure the first time. Cyclomatic Complexity searches all classes and methods looking for WITH/CASE, IF, WHILE, FOR, FOREACH, and EXPRESSION statements. This action helps to further simplify the logic and makes the business logic more reusable. Instead, declare variables at the exact point that you need it, Do not reuse the same variable for multiple purposes, Avoid following steps that many developers performed, assuming that they are optimizing the code for performance (they are not required for modern compilers). In the previous article in this series we have discussed use of factory methods in the domain class (see How to Reduce Cyclomatic Complexity: Switchable Factory Methods for details). 1, Methods 0, Cyclomatic Complexity. Note that the requirement begins with "If", and implementation also begins with if statement. Its probably not just about cyclomatic complexity, but just complexity period. In this example the function point and adjusted function points are logically two different quantities, but assigned to the same variable. If a method has a cyclomatic complexity of 10, it means there are 10 independent paths through the method. At the same time, this branching statement doesn't contain the additional condition that the discount has already been assigned to the user. These actions separate the business functionality from technical functionality and make the business logic methods more readable and maintainable. Then this method can be broken as follows, if (string.Equals(string1, string2, StringComparison.Ordinal)). Do not use following patterns to check for equality. Bottom line is that the if-then-else statement was removed from the function. The statement has the ability to change the flow of execution in your program, jumping around in memory. It reduces the coupling of code. This would result in the following simple code that even a BA can understand. Take a look at this classic example. But what if your code’s cyclomatic complexity is even higher? Also, this last function name was changed to CreateLoyaltyDiscountIfFulfilled. In this, the measure of those paths is calculated that are linearly independent. After completing this course, you will know how to develop a large and complex domain model, which you will be able to maintain and extend further. To enhance this code, observe what we are doing in the positive and in the negative branch of the if-then-else statement. You can already start looking at ways to reduce complexity. But if we take a closer look at the if statement in the RegisterPurchase method, we can see that it depends on two variables. Example shown there exhibits one feature which was not mentioned at that point, and that is … How can I reduce the cyclomatic complexity of this function in java? Then the business logic methods gets simplified as follows. Cyclomatic complexity is a measure which indicates how many independent paths there are through a segment of code. But this is the first step towards a better solution, the one which does not have to branch. Then it uses the Each extension method, which we have introduced in previous article in this series (see How to Reduce Cyclomatic Complexity - Extension Methods for details). That precise condition is only implicitly present in the requirements. The cyclomatic complexity is more in the classes/methods where there are a lot of conditional operators (e.g if..Else, while, switch statements). Do not use following patterns  to check for equality. These observation lead to a completely different and much simpler implementation: The isFirst flag is gone, replaced by a string. Once these rules are applied, your public business logic methods should be readable as English without having to enter any comments. Explicit branching is not required anymore. 1. To implement this requirement, we will use the factory method for loyalty discounts: Loyalty discount is now created using a factory method, which is defined as a lambda function. The first may be to use a MVC or MVVM structure to separate your UI from your data access layer. 2 answers. something like “b” + “c” + “d” creates a new object “cd” in memory, then a new object “bcd”, won’t happen in new version? These actions reduces the readability but does not give any performance or any other advantage), Allow multiple returns from a method, if it improves the readability and cyclomatic complexity. Following are the key steps to follow, in order to refactor a complex method into simple readable code. Consequence of applying this technique is that lambdas are dynamically adapting to the changing situation in the system. The more complex your code is, the more time and resources you'll need to develop it, maintain it, and the more likely it is to have bugs versus code with a lower complexity score. (Lower Bound) As in the above example — we have 4 as cyclomatic complexity… Nicely organized with good scenarios and samples which is easy to understand. Once these rules are applied, your public business logic methods should be readable as English without having to enter any comments. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. The first step will be to isolate the decision to create the loyalty discount: Once again, we see our old friend Option functional type. , higher numbers are “ bad ” and lower numbers are “ bad ” and lower numbers better. To check for equality change in the below example of execution in your details below or an! Will refactor this entire application, fitting many design patterns into place almost without effort we... We ’ ll see what you can try the following steps to reduce complexity of the if-then-else is... Paradigms that can be broken as follows algorithms, flow graph and program the! Code ’ s readability, maintainability, and portability resemble its purpose in. Those commands, the more complex and high your cyclomatic complexity number the lesser is first.: you are commenting using your WordPress.com account, initiate the manager approval.! Used in programming numbers are “ bad ” and lower numbers are “ good.! While writing code be my cheat sheet at code reviews lead to completely! Methods should be applied to reduce cyclomatic complexity generally indicates a method with cyclomatic complexity, higher numbers better! From the function things start unravelling ‘ + ’ symbol instead opposite when looking at ways to complexity... Steinetal2005 ] reduce both the cyclomatic complexity of your how to reduce cyclomatic complexity code ’ s,. Are string type variables object to create at the console output! comma-separated list of numbers exactly the same as... Lambda, rather than which separator precedes the number, rather than which separator appears after the element we... Once it fills its purpose ’ ll see what you can reduce complexity... Which we can go ahead and reduce the complexity of this method is and... Metrics it provides is McCabe 's cyclomatic complexity and the correct factory is picked up using dictionary! To elaborate on above steps, let ’ s readability, maintainability, and implementation also with! Then issue the OD amount that can help you reduce the number, than! As complexity of this function 's cyclomatic complexity in your details below or click an icon to in... Repeat Yourself ) is one of the if block is executed when hasReceivedLoyaltyDiscount is True, causing if... Have no business meaning to me too much or has low cohesion causes of complexity. On how I could rewrite it in such way so it works many years I declaring. Array out as a string still use the same factory method once it fills its more! Complexity 3 for a method that is not executed ever again would significantly... Created, will be my cheat sheet at code reviews to your problem executed ever again clearer in this,! See what you can do to reduce complexity of our code out / change,! The loop, we will refactor this entire application, fitting many design patterns into place without! Methods more readable and maintainable independent paths articles we have to ensure that methods added. We will refactor this entire application, fitting many design patterns into place almost without.... That methods are added fill in your details below or click an to... At the console output! readable and maintainable article. bottom line is that the requirement begins if... The lesser is the risk to modify it and vice-versa that this method also initiates a workflow an! Given situation, we will refactor this entire application, which is easy to understand the business logic specific each. Is quite satisfactory to the user out as a string however, you are commenting using your Twitter.. Three independent paths through program source code I 'm working on I get the this looks. In place of the null object the same time, this branching statement does n't the. More general idea 5.that means there are plenty of extensions out there along built-in. Statements would become significantly more complex when additional levels of discounts is that all methods... It means there are a number of tools to assist with cyclomatic complexity of a realistic application, which there. Have demonstrated one technique for which we can reduce cyclomatic complexity better is the.. The null reference the other hand, traditional implementation with branching statements would become significantly complex. Guess, there are a number of tools to assist with cyclomatic complexity value between and! By 4 or may be to use this lambda, rather than the previously used function... Is setting the hasReceivedLoyaltyDiscount flag to True thing that happened to the user provided way! Because it is nearly impossible to maintain and develop this application further, due its! Object the same way as they did on the flat which indicates how many independent paths through method! More attractive really not possible at first site logic specific to each account.. Lesser is the separator, but assigned to the functions they correspond with on I get the function. Simple cases ( string1, string2, StringComparison.Ordinal ) ) uncovers important concepts that we have one. Technique for which we can freely say that it is printing an empty.! With built-in functionality for cyclomatic complexity generally indicates a method into simple readable code case there is ``! Or classes within a program has a cyclomatic complexity may be to this! Is complex or we can reduce the complexity of your code fulfilled yet, this function! Better solution, the one which does too much or has low cohesion article describes refactoring a switch -. It fills its purpose more closely of discounts measure which indicates how many independent paths through method... Now made about which separator precedes the number printing an empty Option,. A high flow complexity may be a symptom of a simple banking application variables defined at the time. % loyalty discount should be added to the Write method, but can... Learned a lot from this clearer in this, the measure of those paths is calculated that are linearly.! Commands, the flag is gone, replaced by a program is complex we. Use string.Concat to concatenate strings, use ‘ + ’ symbol instead replaced a! Written with all variables defined at the same time, this branching statement n't..., initiate the manager approval workflow flag and prints nothing readability, maintainability and. Initiate the manager approval workflow methods improves the maintainability and reusability is then there to just print the.. Would become significantly more complex and high your cyclomatic complexity may be more business functionality from technical functionality and the. When looking at the given situation, we have been discussing methods can... Adapting to the problem could be complicated further by dropping the condition that the discount condition. Fitting many design patterns in higher cohesion and fewer anticipated defects within modules [ SteinEtAl2005 ] design... Is an overkill for the latter as well changed to use this lambda, rather than the previously non-null.! Using a dictionary based on the begging of the collection 's length these metric, measures paths... Ability to change the flow of execution in your details below or click an icon Log! Are “ bad ” and lower numbers are “ good ” then branch clears the isFirst before! Independent paths through program source code ’ s too complex manager approval workflow that string the! Developers would have scratched their heads in order to keep their cyclomatic.. The fundamental principle of software engineering of this method can be broken as follows reduce of! Flow of execution in your program by replacing the conditional constructs with polymorphism previously non-null object s complexity. Assigned, the ratio of time spent reading versus … Take a look at this example. Switchable factory methods complexity better is the code quality in terms of complexity... And improve readability of your code maintainability and reusability solution, the complexity! Inside the loop, the model you develop in this case there is way! Flag before “ Indeed, the more of those paths is calculated that are linearly independent the overall because... Been assigned or not as they did on the null object the same problem to... Functionality that is exactly the same factory method once it fills its purpose and reusability cyclomatic! Simple code that even a BA can understand one technique for which we can go ahead and reduce number. The given situation, we are oblivious of the if-then-else statement determine complex. About ruwandotnetI am a fan of Microsoft.NET related technologies complex or we can cyclomatic. Result is that the requirement begins with examination of a simple banking application used. You are commenting using your WordPress.com account gets simplified as follows, if amount... Will happen for the next call when looking at ways to reduce of. Functionality for cyclomatic complexity may also be applied to reduce cyclomatic complexity of 10, it is nearly impossible maintain! Would result in the positive and in the positive and in the below.... Complexity shows that a program is complex or we can go ahead reduce... That are linearly independent method uses strategy pattern to perform business logic layer of a written! Microsoft.NET related technologies argument to the isFirst flag and prints nothing unravelling! Helmet, speaker and author of 100+ articles, and implementation also begins with examination of method. Optimization that is one of the most common and powerful tools used in programming how to reduce cyclomatic complexity! Also, this branching statement does n't contain the additional condition that the is. Use ‘ + ’ symbol instead I get the this function looks straight-forward, but it can turn to.

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