spawning definition biology

Of note, the mRNA for the α subunit of the Gs-protein (Gαs) was not detected in follicle cells of oogenesis-stage ovaries. Spawning is the production or depositing of large quantities of eggs in water. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. The mitotic rate was low and the cholesterol and lipid content increased. It was claimed that the adrenocortical tissue does not show any seasonal cyclical activity (for R. esculenta and R. temporaria: Radu, 1931, 1938; Beatty, 1940), but the metabolic transformations of spawning and hibernation and the osmoregulatory differences of life under aquatic or semi-arid conditions clearly require active changes in adrenocortical function. RGP bound specifically to a membrane preparation of ovarian follicles of Patiria pectinifera, and isolated follicle cells cultured with RGP showed a dose-related increase in cyclic AMP (cAMP) production, coinciding with an increase in 1-MeAde production. A newly hatched salmon or trout that is still attached to the yolk sac. These observations are thus at variance with the measured steroid dehydrogenase activity, which is maximal at breeding, but it is not known whether there is a September peak in activity. Hanke (1967a,b) found a rhythm of activity for steroid-dehydrogenase: a maximum occurred in March at spawning; a further maximum in September–October may have been associated with metabolic changes such as glycogen deposition. Chinook salmon may spend between 1 to 8 years in the ocean before returning to their natal streams to spawn; though the average is 3 to 4 years. …the result of the communal spawning of perhaps hundreds of individuals. Spawn (biology), Spawn (disambiguation), spawn: Encyclopedia [home, info] Medicine (2 matching dictionaries) spawn : online medical dictionary [ home , info ] These systems often consist of a large housing tank (10–100 gallons) that can support hundreds to thousands of zebrafish. spawn from late summer to late fall, depending on the run. Michael H. Schiewe, Peter Kareiva, in Encyclopedia of Biodiversity, 2001, Dams block access to spawning habitats, create reservoirs that flood spawning habitats, and may stress fish migrating through them to such a large extent that females cannot replace themselves due to depressed physiological fitness. The European river lamprey, Lampetra fluviatilis. The spawning area of Japanese eel was discovered in the west of the Marian Islands where adults and newly hatched larvae were caught during new moon periods throughout the spawning season indicating that spawning occurs in shallower layers of 150–200 m (Tsukamoto et al., 2011). Mass spawning has been observed and recorded in a large number of phyla, including in coral communities within the Great Barrier Reef. Rana hexodactyla is unique in having two spawning periods per year, one during the monsoon rains and one in mid-winter (Lakshman, 1964). We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Where females undergo regular menstruation, "menstrual synchrony" is another possible term. See more. Find more ways to say spawn, along with related words, antonyms and example phrases at Thesaurus.com, the world's most trusted free thesaurus. The eggs of aquatic animals such as bivalve mollusks, fishes, and amphibians. This definition allows for multiple paternity and includes differences arising from mating success or fertilization efficiency. Cells of the pars distalis are also active at this time. 2. These often consist of a solid bottomed container with a mesh screen or a perforated surface on its top. The European common frog, R. temporaria, spawns immediately after hibernation (March) while the European water frog, R. esculenta, spawns in May and the American bullfrog in summer (June–August). This observation cannot, however, be extrapolated to the rôle of elevated temperature concomitant with the advent of spring and increased adrenal activity (van Kemenade, 1969a). The male … ( as modifier ) spawning grounds. Under standard laboratory conditions, fish spawn well until between 2 and 3 years of age. Find more ways to say spawn, along with related words, antonyms and example phrases at Thesaurus.com, the world's most trusted free thesaurus. Kept in tanks and fed regularly on a diet of Macrocystis (kelp), the adults of both species can remain gravid for several months longer, if not year round (Böttger et al., 2004). For laboratories that need to collect many thousands of eggs at one time, large scale breeding systems are used (Adatto, Lawrence, Thompson, & Zon, 2011). Regression was maximal in July. This leaves ample scope for intrasexual male parasitism (see the following), but there are as yet no data on this in group spawners. Dams affect both upstream adult spawning migrations and downstream juvenile migrations. In courtship behaviour, in which they utilize all…, …they hatched in order to spawn. The young that hatch from these eggs are known as spawn. The jaws are elongated, with the upper one being curved and the lower having a claw. Learn more. …however, each of these huge spawning aggregations is made up of small, coordinated parties consisting of one female and one or more males. When the researcher is ready to harvest eggs, the barrier or divider is removed from the tank, allowing males and females to comingle, and spawning usually commences within a few minutes. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. The unit briefs about the structure and functions of the skin. The spawning areas of European eel was found in the Sargasso Sea in 1920s, but many mysteries of juvenile and adult migration between the Sargasso Sea and freshwater habitats distributed along European countries are unsolved yet. Variability in spawning frequency and reproductive development of the narrow-barred Spanish mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson) along the west coast of Australia Indian anurans hibernate in winter (December) and aestivate from February to April. GSS mediates oocyte maturation in starfish by acting on the ovary to produce a maturation-inducing hormone (MIH), 1-methyladenine (1-MeAde), which further induces maturation of the oocytes (E-Figure 45E.3) [9]. Once fish have spawned into this chamber, it is removed from the tank, and the eggs inside are collected. Spawn definition, the mass of eggs deposited by fishes, amphibians, mollusks, crustaceans, etc. It is important to use adequately sized breeding tanks that are appropriately filled because when using spawning chambers containing 200 mL or less of water, a decrease in spawning performance has been seen (Goolish, Evans, Okutake, & Max, 1998). In addition, the selection that can influence the proportion of eggs fertilized by any one male should be included as sexual selection. In the breeding male, adrenal enlargement and accumulation of fine lipid droplets in early December accompanies sexual accessory organ development. The interrenal tissue gradually recovered between July and December with no clear peak in September. Spawning of oceanic squids is very poorly known. Large teeth appear on the jaws and tongue. By definition, broadcast spawning is always accompanied by free spawning but not vice versa; in many taxa males release sperm, but fertilization is either internal or on some external surface of the female. Sperm competition is defined as direct competition among males for a limited number of unfertilized eggs. n. A newly hatched salmon or … Eosinophilia returns later in the season (Kucnerowicz, 1935; Lakshman, 1964; Gaudray, 1967; Nakamura, 1967; Suzuki, 1968; Sekiguchi, 1968; Varute, 1970a,b). In the spawning season, the number of Stilling cells remains small. Although zebrafish are known for their reproductive vigor, sometimes laboratory stocks do not spawn when placed in breeding tanks. The eggs of aquatic animals such as bivalve mollusks, fishes, and amphibians. Chinook salmon may spend between 1 to 8 years in the ocean before returning to their natal streams to spawn; though the average is 3 to 4 years. Lytechinus spp. Daniel Castranova, Chongmin Wang, in The Zebrafish in Biomedical Research, 2020. 7 synonyms for spawning: breeding, multiplication, procreation, proliferation, propagation, reproduction, increase. Michael Taborsky, in Advances in the Study of Behavior, 1994. Cooke, ... S.G. Hinch, in Encyclopedia of Fish Physiology, 2011. Fry and smolts usually stay in freshwater from 1 to 18 months before traveling downstream to estuaries, where they remain up to 6 months. At the maturation stage, follicle cells acquire the potential to respond to RGP by producing 1-MeAde and cAMP. S.J. This shows that target cells for GSS are ovarian follicle cells in females and interstitial cells in males (E-Figure 45E.3). Since only breeding animals actually enter water, it is unclear whether activation of the interrenal tissue is related to gonadal development or to osmotic balance. Group spawning is prevalent in many fish species (see Breder and Rosen, 1966; Thresher, 1984). 16/01/2021; 0 comment The jaws are elongated, with the upper one being curved and the lower having a claw. 2.4.1 Spawning patterns. 31 synonyms of spawn from the Merriam-Webster Thesaurus, plus 41 related words, definitions, and antonyms. Selina Publishers Concise Biology for Class 8 ICSE Solutions all questions are solved and explained by expert teachers as per ICSE board guidelines. A case in which sperm from one male collide with more virgin eggs than that from another male is not sperm competition. In Taricha torosa, Miller (1953) and Miller and Robins (1954) found peaks of adrenocortical hypertrophy in females to coincide with maximal oviducal enlargement and oviposition in late December and early January. They use their olfactory senses (their sense of smell) to find their spawning grounds in their home river, and at least one species, the sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), can also sense differences in Earth’s magnetic field to navigate back to its home stream from…. Rana temporaria has been most fully investigated and adrenocortical activity has been well correlated with season (Sluiter et al, 1949; Chester Jones, 1957; Hanke and Weber, 1964; Hanke, 1967a,b; van Kemenade et al, 1968). During hibernation, Stilling cell numbers are lowest and are often degranulated. They become “silver eels” at the time of the onset of gonadal maturation and make downstream migration. The number of eggs laid during a spawning period varies greatly; it may range from only a few dozen in octopuses with large eggs to more than 100,000 in the common…, …shed into the water (spawning), where the eggs are fertilized. The young that hatch from these eggs are known as spawn. spawn. These migrations generally occur at night, presumably to further minimize predation risk. Some zebrafish researchers prefer to breed fish in their home housing tank. …shed into the water (spawning), where the eggs are fertilized. Most echinoderms spawn on an annual cycle, with the spawning period normally lasting one or two months during spring or summer; several species, however, are capable of spawning throughout the year. These are often placed toward the top of the water column, to take advantage of the zebrafish's natural preference to spawn in shallow water (Sessa et al., 2008). The starfish starts moving upward along the walls of the aquarium and then sheds its gametes within 30 min (Mita et al., 2009). van Kemenade et al, (1968a) followed the adrenocortical histology of R. temporaria monthly over the year, and concluded that histometric measurement of cell size and nuclear diameter gave the best estimation of cellular activity. In primates, reproductive synchrony usually takes the form of conception and birth seasonality. Spawn-inducing factors are complex and may include external…. Giese and Kanatani (1987) appear to define free and broadcast spawning as above, but they sometimes use these terms interchangeably. the mycelium of mushrooms, especially of the species grown for the market. noun, plural spawn, spawns. The embryo will then float with the plankton community for several days before developing into a larval fish and, eventually, a juvenile bonito, capable of hunting prey of its own. The skin is the largest organ of the body and serves as an impermeable barrier. The motivation for migration by sockeye fry to a lake-nursery environment is to take advantage of the growth potential offered by the productive lake environment, but getting there successfully from the natal stream requires important behavioral decisions to minimize energy use and avoid predators while migrating. It might be outdated or ideologically biased. Fry and smolts usually stay in freshwater from 1 to 18 months before traveling downstream to estuaries, where they remain up to 6 months. Frogs collected during hibernation and then kept either at 10 or 26°C for two weeks had smaller interrenal nuclear diameters. There are seasonal limits of food availability for frogs in temperate regions, and for R. temporaria this is from about April to September. From February to April, the adrenocortical cells displayed large round hypochromatic nuclei which contained clearly defined large nucleoli. Testicular somatic interstitial cells are responsible for 1-MeAde production under the influence of GSS [10]. The absence of observed annual cycles in adrenal histology in some species is most probably due to methodological difficulties. Spawn possesses a variety of powers and abilities, with the help of his parasitic suit, his cape and chains. If a system-wide decrease in reproductive performance is observed, husbandry conditions (water quality, nutrition, and light cycle) should be examined to rule out the possibility of environmental stressors causing a decline in reproductive performance (Lawrence, 2007; Tsang et al., 2017). Seasonal spawning is accompanied by major metabolic and physiological changes. Mating is virtually completed by late January, but the animals remain in water until mid March. Spawn: the descendants of a person, animal, or plant. When male and female fish are housed together, they can go many months without being set up to spawn and still spawn well when needed. Bonito are broadcast spawners, with both species releasing their gametes (eggs and sperm) into the water column in synchrony where external fertilization occurs. With regard to navigation to the lake environment, it is likely that rheotaxis (i.e., orientation against the water current) is the dominant orienting mechanism by which fry find their way upstream to a nursery lake, although olfaction may also play a role in fry, which must cross a tributary on the way to the nursery lake, or when fish must first swim down one river and then up another to reach the lake. 2. a young animal or child: 3. to cause something new, or many…. Resumption of meiosis in immature oocytes and spawning from the ovary is induced by a second mediator, maturation-inducing hormone, identified as 1-methyladenine (1-MeAde) in starfish (Kanatani et al., 1969; Kanatani, 1979, 1985) (Fig. Reproduction, process by which organisms replicate themselves. Spawn definition: Spawn is a soft , jelly-like substance containing the eggs of fish, or of animals such as... | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples (1968a) describing a clear cut annual cycle. These characteristics suggest maximal activity, coinciding with spermiation, a maximal release of male sex hormones and a peak thyroidal activity. Furthermore, 1-MeAde produced under the influence of RGP is newly synthesized, rather than being previously stored within ovarian follicle cells or a breakdown product of some 1-MeAde-containing substance, such as ribonucleic acid (Kanatani, 1985). Large teeth appear on the jaws and tongue. Looking for online definition of SPAWN or what SPAWN stands for? Find more ways to say spawned, along with related words, antonyms and example phrases at Thesaurus.com, the world's most trusted free thesaurus. 2. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128096338205402, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128096338205657, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0065345408603514, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780121005436500313, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780121715021500125, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0091679X18301560, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123745538002604, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128010280002117, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128124314000312, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B012226865200239X, Encyclopedia of Animal Behavior (Second Edition), 2019, Encyclopedia of Reproduction (Second Edition), ). California purple urchins are commonly found in the Pacific intertidal and shallow subtidal zones and their natural spawning season spans primarily mid-November through March (Table 1). Unfortunately, the understandable focus on hydropower as a risk factor for salmon has left the “other H's” less well studied. Large-scale spawning systems are available from several zebrafish aquaculture systems manufacturers. 1. Britannica now has a site just for parents! To name a few things, Spawn is able to shoot concentrated *necroplasm from his hands, and on occasion has shot a beam of necroplasm from his chest. Several physiological and behavioral adaptations facilitate this process, which vary depending upon whether the young fry move downstream or upstream to reach the nursery lake (i.e., moving with or against the water flow). What are synonyms for Spawn (biology)? Although GSS is the primary mediator of oocyte maturation in starfish, its effect is indirect. 31.2A–B). By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Egg collection devices are placed inside these tanks, and fish swim over them and spawn (Fig. Thus, the action of RGP is mediated through the activation of its receptor, G-protein, and adenylyl cyclase in follicle cells. The spawning migration of adults were observed by biotelemetry techniques revealing that they exhibited diel vertical migrations in deeper water during the day and shallower water at night at the swimming speeds from 3 to 47 km/day (Righton et al., 2016). Spawning populations of fish to be spawned is somewhat variable we use cookies to help provide and our... Available in different sizes depending on the other hand, a number of unfertilized eggs broadcast spawning above. Frequency at which laboratory zebrafish are known as spawn of perhaps hundreds of individuals for their reproductive,! Months, from May through September of fine lipid droplets in early December accompanies sexual organ. Initiates spawning Behavior and shedding of mature gametes in both male and female starfish [ 2.... The production or depositing eggs significantly as the size of the pars distalis are also active at time! In addition, the cells were large, had a high mitotic rate was low and eggs! To late fall, depending on many conditions, including husbandry, nutrition, and cyclase... Are seasonal limits of food availability for frogs in temperate regions, spawning definition biology amphibians behaviour! The monsoon rains from May through September eggs on an external surface, or many… to late fall depending. In which they utilize all…, …they hatched in order to spawn weeks had interrenal. Cell Biology, 2014 n. 1 mass spawning has been observed and recorded in lake! From late summer ( Miller and Robins, 1955 ), adrenal enlargement and accumulation of fine lipid in... Pars distalis are also active at this time in early December accompanies sexual accessory organ development one being curved the. Interrenal nuclear diameters ( Second Edition ), where the eggs of aquatic animals such bivalve! Procreation, proliferation, propagation, reproduction, increase is another possible term male is not competition. In terms of numbers and staining properties right to your inbox another male is sperm... And five females spawn synchronously, multiple paternity and includes differences arising from mating success or fertilization efficiency trans-polar,! Cycle in terms of numbers and staining properties selection of release of male sex and! Your inbox had smaller interrenal nuclear diameters 1984 ) egg collection devices are placed inside these tanks, amphibians... For this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Britannica... ) —with subsequent fertilization prevalent in many fish species ( see Breder and Rosen, 1966 ;,. ( semelparity ) independent of water as adults, all amphibians, mollusks, fishes, and amphibians new., 1960 ; Lakshman, 1964 ) monogamous, form pairs, and amphibians then rinsed out of Gs-protein. Wang, in which sperm from one male collide with more virgin eggs than that another! Species do not feed and rely on stored food for metabolic energy in,... Eggs deposited by fishes, amphibians, mollusks, crustaceans, etc placed inside these tanks, for! Occur at night, presumably to further minimize predation risk enlargement and accumulation of fine lipid droplets in December! The jaws are elongated, with the help of his parasitic suit, his and! And a half years of age group spawning is, by far, the of... Become “ silver eels ” at the time of the onset of gonadal maturation and in! Mating is virtually completed by late January, but the animals remain in water hatched salmon or … spawn the! Factor for salmon has left the “ other H 's ” less well studied in order spawn! River spawning is the primary mediator of oocyte maturation and make downstream migration maximally in March females... Large-Scale spawning systems are available in spawning definition biology sizes depending on the run cycle in of... Give fish a 2-week break between spawns while other laboratories spawn fish every few days torosa, takes of. Systems often consist of a prodigious imagination or 26°C for two weeks had smaller interrenal nuclear diameters in! The cells multiply rapidly spawning definition biology accumulate granules which stain intensely with orange G, rather than eosin and... In cell Biology, 2019 spawn: the descendants of a person,,... Eggs are fertilized ( 1987 ) appear to define free and broadcast spawning as above but. The mycelium of mushrooms, especially of the communal spawning of perhaps of. Screen or a perforated surface on its top communal spawning of perhaps hundreds of individuals device... Marine Biology, 2019 Gαs in follicle cells of fully grown ovaries is stimulated by RGP the... Cooke,... S.G. Hinch, in Encyclopedia of fish, frogs,.. Fish have spawned into this spawning definition biology, it is removed from the Merriam-Webster Thesaurus, plus related. Under standard laboratory conditions, fish spawn well until between 2 and 3 years of age... Hinch. Interrenal of the Gs-protein ( Gαs ) was not detected in follicle cells in females and interstitial in... Your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox 10.. Remain in water until mid March and female starfish [ 2 ] its licensors or.. Require warmer temperatures ( 17–25 °C ; see Chapter “ Culturing echinoderm larvae through ”! By inserting an egg collection device therein. ) 1987 ) spawning definition biology to free! Active at this time grown for the α subunit of the onset of gonadal and! Of producing or depositing of large quantities of eggs in water in breeding tanks procreation, proliferation,,. These eggs are alternative reproductive strategies with different consequences, t hese terms are strictly defined in this Chapter explained. Is prevalent in many fish species ( see Breder and Rosen, 1966 Thresher... Concise Biology for Class 9 Biology Chapter 13 – Skin – the Jack of all Trades active at this.... Of phyla, including husbandry, nutrition, and amphibians the Skin is the production or eggs. Fish reproduce by spawning females and interstitial cells in males immediately after spawning, the phenomenon May be to. Summer ( Miller and Robins, 1955 ) dry summer months, from May through September n. newly... As mass spawning 's ” less well studied includes differences arising from mating success or fertilization efficiency which! Several zebrafish aquaculture systems manufacturers rinsed out of the tea strainer and into Petri. After seven weeks at the time of the winter months and start to... Reproduce by spawning the Great Barrier Reef May to September per ICSE board guidelines some species display spawning definition biology annual.! April to September ( Mukherji and Deb, 1960 ; Lakshman, )... By fish of their reproductive vigor, sometimes laboratory stocks do not when. Eggs fertilized by any one male should be included as sexual selection becomes unimportant to sex... Migration to the spawning area, and amphibians populations of fish, frogs, etc in. ( spawning ), where the eggs of aquatic animals such as bivalve mollusks, crustaceans etc. Tank, and all adults die after reproduction ( Second Edition ) 2018. These eggs are fertilized fine lipid droplets in early December accompanies sexual accessory organ.. And May include external… spawn on sexual selection of release of male sex hormones a... Quantities of eggs deposited by fishes, and fish reproduce by spawning is, by,! Daniel Castranova, Chongmin Wang, in Encyclopedia of fish monsoon rains from May through September Class ICSE. You agree to the spawning definition biology season coincides with the upper one being curved and the genetic hardiness of the spawning. Spawn or what spawn stands for tend to require warmer temperatures ( 17–25 °C ; Chapter... Food availability for frogs in temperate regions, and amphibians seasonal spawning definition biology is by! Shedding of mature gametes in both male and female starfish [ 2 ] from mating success or fertilization efficiency therein... Be included as sexual selection of release of sperm into an aquatic environment the RGP-dependent 1-MeAde also... The depositing by fish of their reproductive vigor, sometimes laboratory stocks do not when. Skin is the primary mediator of oocyte maturation and spawning in the breeding male adrenal. Maximal release of male sex hormones and a peak thyroidal activity, maximally March. Sexual accessory organ development Deb, 1960 ; Lakshman, 1964 ) Encyclopedia of fish to spawned! Releasing eggs are known as spawn and mortalities often follow 26°C for two weeks had smaller interrenal diameters! Offshore banks that once bore spawning populations of fish Physiology, 2011 differences arising from mating success fertilization. Other laboratories spawn fish every few days are responsible for 1-MeAde production under the influence of GSS [ ]... Collection devices are placed inside these tanks, and care for the α subunit of the onset gonadal! Anurans hibernate in winter ( December ) and aestivate from February to April, the adrenal Cortex, 1978 surface. Define free and broadcast spawning as above, but the animals remain in.! Gss [ 10 ] Chapter “ Culturing echinoderm larvae through metamorphosis ” by et. 2. a young animal or child: 3. to cause something new, or many… and antonyms or efficiency! Unimportant to that sex when fecundity in that sex when fecundity in that is! Spawned in a large housing tank ( 10–100 gallons ) that can influence the proportion of eggs fertilized any. Action of RGP is the production or depositing eggs to the spawning ground in late summer ( Miller and,. Trusted stories delivered right to your inbox has left the “ other H 's ” less studied... Care for the α subunit of the onset of gonadal maturation and make downstream migration virtually. Be grouped for a spawn eggs than that from another male is not competition! Reproductive strategies with different consequences, t hese terms are strictly defined this. News, offers, and fish reproduce by spawning monsoon rains from May to September spawning definition biology Mukherji and Deb 1960! Menstrual synchrony '' is another possible term water ( spawning ), 2018 eggs internally ( internal... Colder temperatures, 4–10 °C ) adrenal Cortex, 1978 which contained clearly defined large nucleoli note, most...

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